Thermax designs ultrapure water systems as a combination of membrane and ion-exchange techniques, to produce 18 mg-ohms specific resistance water.
Ultrapure water contains nil to very low concentrations of salts, organic components, oxygen, suspended solids or bacteria. It is used in semiconductor, power, steel, and pharmaceutical industries. Ultrapure water is used to slice silicon wafers as a process in fabricating integrated circuits. It is also the primary solvent used to rinse away contaminants and remnants of silicon etched away in production. Integrated circuits are so minute and complex that even a small contaminant can hinder the operation of a circuit. Pharmaceuticals require several water applications including ultrapure water for injection, sterile water, and wastewater treatment.