Absorption chillers are a type of refrigerant. It contains lithium bromide-water (LiBr/H2O) and ammonia-water as a main constituent for refrigeration application. Unlike conventional compression chillers, absorption chillers utilize heat energy for cooling purpose rather than mechanical energy. One of the simplest applications of absorption chillers is found in residential refrigerators, which contains a gas flame at the bottom of the machine, and an ice cubes at the top of the machine and there is no electricity involved in whole refrigeration cycle. However an absorption chiller used in commercial and industrial refrigeration much larger in size and more complicated in terms of design technology, but the basic operating principle remains the same. Some of the major components of an absorption chiller arrangement include generator, evaporator, condenser, and the absorber. Some of the major end user application of absorption chillers is found in refrigeration, oil and petroleum industry, chemical industry, geothermal appliances, freezing and food canning.
Globally, on the basis of the product, the absorption chiller market can be broadly classified as exhaust gas (multi energy) chillers, hot water fired chillers, steam Fired Chillers and Natural gas fired Chillers.
On the basis of various design technology involved the absorption chillers market can broadly categorized as single effect absorption chillers, double effect absorption chillers and Triple Effect absorption chillers. Single-effect absorption chillers design technology is the most widely used since it have coefficient of powers (COP) in range of 0.6 to 0.8 out of an ideal 1.0. Single effect absorption chillers are used in various industries such power plants and boilers.
The global absorption chillers market is driven by the various cost and performance benefits associated with it. The use of gas based cooling system provides lower operating cost by avoiding peak electric demand charges. Moreover absorption chillers offer quiet and vibration-free operation of refrigerator, improved system efficiency and reliability, and lower maintenance cost over long run.
The high initial cost of absorption chillers over some of other conventional compression chillers is one of the major restrain of the market predominantly within the context of cost conscious consumers of developing economies.
North America is the largest market of absorption chillers followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. The high concentration of allied industries such chemicals, petroleum, and processed food in North America is one of the key factor contributing to the dominance for absorption chillers market in this region. Asia Pacific is the fasted growing market of absorption chillers followed of Rest of the World (RoW) which includes Middle East, Latin America and South Africa. The rising market of absorption chillers in Asia Pacific is mainly fueled by the increasing demand from the emerging economies such as India and China. Moreover the shortage of electricity and lack of proper electrical distribution infrastructure in developing countries is further helping in adoption of energy efficient appliances in this region.